Body Mechanics in Health and Disease


by Joel E Goldthwait (Author), Lloyd T Brown (Author), Loring T Swaim (Author) John G. Kuhns (Author) 

Modern medicine and many manual therapies effectively ignore the impact of posture on the health of the individual. This pioneering study by doctors back in the mid 1900s is a must read for bodyworkers everywhere. Informative and insightful, it gives credence to the importance of good body mechanics in the alleviation of many of the ailments that beset us today, including heart conditions, diabetes and arthritis. Joel E. Goldthwait was Chief of Orthopedic Surgery in Boston in the early 1900s. He developed a successful approach to the problems of chronic diseases founded on the concept that these conditions arose because of body misalignments which in turn led to compromised organ function. It was a revelation to many that standing or sitting badly could impact more than just the spine and joints



Joel E. Goldthwaite.jpg


Chapter 1

Alvarez, W. C.: Constitutional inadequacy, J. M. Soc. New Jersey 36:658, 1939.

Appleton, A. B.: Posture, Practitioner 156:48, 1948. 

Baker, F.: Chronically ill patient and physical therapy, Physiotherapy Rev. 16:131, 1936.

Brown, L. T.: Bodily mechanics and medicine, Boston M. & S. J.  182:649, 1920.

Burt, H. A.: Effects of faulty posture, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 18:187, 1950.

Cochrane, W. A.: Importance of physique and correct posture in relation to the art of medicine, Brit. M. J. 1:310, 1924.

Crispell, R. W.: Constitutional medicine, South. Med. & Surg. 101:255, 1939.

Dart, R. A.: The attainment of poise, South African 21 :74, 1947.

Dickson, F. D.: Posture, Its Relation to Health, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1931.

Forrester-Brown, M. F.: Posture as a factor in health and disease, Brit. M. J. 1:1690, 1926.

Goldthwait, J.  E.: An anatomic and mechanistic conception of disease, Boston M. and Surg. J.  172:881, 1915.

-: The challenge of the chronic patient, Boston M. & S. J. 186:31, 1922.

Hellebrandt, F. A.: Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the prevention of chronic invalidism,  J.A.M.A. 142:967, 1950.

Klein, A., and Thomas, L.: Posture and physical fitness, Washington, D. C., Dept. of Labor, Children’s Bur. Pub.  No. 205, 1931.

Lee, R. 1.: Preventive medicine in general practice, J.A.M.A. 98:2038, 1931.

Osgood, R. B.: Body mechanics and posture, J.A.M. A.  96:2032, 1931. .

Schwartz, L.: Resume of literature on posture, Pub. Health Rep. 42:1219, 1927.

Sherman, F. A.: Habits of posture as related to health and efficiency, Nat. Health 5:708, 1923.

Splithoff, C. A.: Origin and development of the erect posture, Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 84:943, 1947. 

Stewart, S. F. N.: The evolution of human posture, Hawaii M. J. 7:291, 1948.

Swaim, L. T.: The mechanically unfit, Am. J. Orthop. Surg. 13:280, 1915.

Thomas, L. C.: Body Mechanics and Health, Boston, Houghton, 1929.

White House Conference, Body .MIechanics, New York, Century, 1932.

Wood-]ones, F.: Attainment of upright posture of man, Nature 146:26, 1940.



Chapter 2

Barker, L. F.: Clinical aspects of more important types of human constitution, Rev. Gastroenterol. 2:119, 1936.

Bawken, H., and Bawken, R.: Body build of infants, Am. ]. Dis. Child. 37:46l, 1929.

Bean, R. R.: Morbidity and morphology, johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 23:363, 1915.

Brees, L.: Body build, personality and neuroses, jour. Ment. Sc. 96:435, 1950.

Bryant,  The carnivorous and herbivorous types in man, Boston M. 8c S. J. 172:321, 1915. Collumbine, H., Bibile, S. W., Wikramayoke, T. W.: Influence of age, sex, physical and muscular development on physical fitness,  Appl. Physiol. 2:488, 1950.

Danielopolu, D., and Aslan, A.: Clinostatisme et orthostatisme, Presse méd. 45:l833, 1937.

Draper, G.: Human Constitution, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1924.

Goldthwait,  E.: The recognition of congenital visceral ptosis in the treatment of badly posed and poorly nourished children, Am.  Orthop. Surg. 9:252, 1911.

Goralewski, G., and Schreiber, A.: Zur Konstitutionsfrage bei ulcus ventriculi und duodeni, Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 632128, 1937.

Gray, H.: Sitting height and stem length in private school boys, Am.  Dis. Child. 23:406, 1922.

Hedenberg, S.: Physical and mental constitutional, Hygiea 25:634, 1945.

Lucas, W. P., and Pryor, H. B.: Physical measurements and physiological processes in young children, ].A.M.A. 97: 1127, 1931.

McCullock, H.: Postural defects and body types in children, M. Clin. North America 9:99, 1925.

Mills, R. W.: The relation of bodily habits to visceral form, positions, tonus and mobility, Am. J. Roentgenol. 4:155, 1917

Pasteur, F.: Morphologic index, Bull. Acad. de med. Paris, 122:39,1939.

Rice, P.; Morphologic types and their predispositions. Hahneman. Month. 73:544, 1938.

 Schwarzacher, W.: Beiund und Gutachten, Wien.klin.Wchnschr. 59:307, 1947.

 Steiglitz, E.  J. Migraine physique. Am.J.M.SC. 189:359, 1935.

 Swaim, L. T.: Study of thirty-nine cases as regards intestinal length and nutrition, Boston M. & S.J.  167:249, l912.

Tanner,  J.W.: Morphologic level of personality, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 40:301, 1947.

Thompson M.: Anatomic types and their relationship to disease, Canadian M.A.J.  14:155, 1924.

Winkler, W.: Krampfhereitschalt und Konstitution, Arch. I. klin. Chirurg. 265:473, 1950

 Ziggler, E. L: Implications of study of body types for physical education. ]. Health &- Phys. Educ. 19:241, 1948.   


Chapter 3

Adams, R. D., and Pillsbury, H. C.: Positions and activities   of the diaphragm as affected by changes of posture, Arch.   Int. Med. 29:245, 1922. 

 Appleton, A. B.: Postural deformities and bone growth,   Lancet 1:451, 1934.  

Badgley, C. R.: Physiologic postural deformities in contrast to pathological postural deformities, ]. MIichigan  M. Soc. 34:469, 1935.  

Bankhart, A. S. B.: Postural deformities, Brit. M. J. 1:587,   1921.  

Brown, L. T.: Mechanics of lumbosacral and sacroiliac   joint, Bone & Joint Surg. 19:770, 1937. -: The recognition of faulty posture, Pub. Health   Nursing, ]an., 1925.  -: A combined medical and postural examination of  746 young adults, Am.  Orthop. Surg. 15:774, 1917.  

Brown, L. T., and Kuhns, J. G.: Mechanical instability of the shoulder joint, ]. Bone & Joint Surg. 16:88, 1934. 

Burt, H. A.: Effects of faulty posture, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med.   43:187, 1950.  

Carnett, J. B.: Chronic strain of the lumbar spine, Ann. Surg. 85:509, 1927.  

Cook, R. J:  Orthopedic examination of 1393 Yale Freshmen,  J. Bone & Joint Surg. 4:247, 1922.

Cyriax, E.: Some common postural deformities and their treatment by manipulation, Brit.  Phys. Med. 1:202,   1938.  

Forrester-Brown, M. F.: The importance of posture. Physio therapy Rev. 13:234, 1933.

Foster, J. B.: Discussion of body mechanics, Physiotherapy   Rev. 14:27, 1934.

Goldmark,  Fatigue and Efficiency, New York. Russell   Sage Foundation, 1917.  

Goldthwait, J. E.: Backgrounds and foregrounds of orthopedics,  J. Bone & joint Surg. 15:279, 1933.-: Recognition of congenital visceral ptosis in the treatment of badly poised and poorly nourished children, Am.  J. Orth. Surg., Nov., 1911.   -: Relation of posture to human efficiency, Boston M.   & S.  J. 161:839, 1909.   —_: Proper development of the body as the basis of   health, Hygeia, Aug., 1924.   _--: Challenge of the chronic patient to the medical profession, Boston M. & S.J.  186:3l, 1922.

Hall, E. R.: Exercise and posture in relation to disease, Virginia Med. Month. 53:729, 1926.  

Horstenegg, W. A. R.: Korferliche Ausbilbung  der_]ugendlichen und statische Deformitater, Wien Med. Wchnschr.  88:969, 1938. 

Howorth, M. B.: Dynamic Posture, Hygiea 25:l98, 1947.

Jordon, H. H.: Myogeloses: The significance of pathologic conditions of musculature in disorders of posture and locomotion, Arch. Phys. Therap. 23:36, 1942. 

 Keith, Sir Arthur: Development of the upright posture in   man, Brit. M. J.  1:451, 1923.  

Kuhns,  J.G.: Tightness of ligamentous structures, Arch. Pediat. 61: 179, 1944. 

Lee, R. 1., and Brown, L. T.: A new chart for the standardization of body mechanics,  J. Bone & Joint Surg. 5:753,   1923.

Lowman, C. L.: Deflection of energy, lnterstate M.J. 22:   883, 1915.  

Myers, E. E.: Management of postural deformities of the   lower extremity, Am. J.  Surg. 44:232, 1939.  

Nat. Comm. South African Red Cross Soc:  Good and bad posture, Hygiea 23: 120, 1945.  

Pohlman, A. G.: Some disadvantages of the upright posture,   Am. Med. 12:541, 1906.

Schurmeier, H. L.: Posture and its relation to bodily mechanics, Am. Med. 22: 143, 1927. 

Sherman, F. A.: Habits of posture as related to health and   efficiency, Nat. Health 5:708, 1923.

Thoma, W.: Role of abdominal muscles in posture, Arch   Orthop. 281376, 1930. 

Wheeldon, T.: The role of the hamstring in the production of postural changes, South. M. J.  34:540, 1941.  

White House Conference on Child Health, Subcommittee on Body Mechanics, New York, Century, 1930. 



Appleton, A. B.: Postural deformities and bone growth,   experimental study, Lancet 1:451, 1934. 

 Brash, J. C.: Some problems in growth and developmental mechanics of bone, Edinburgh M. J. 4l:305, l934. 

Burt, H. A.: Effects of faulty posture, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med.   l8:l87, 1950.

Caldwell, W.: Postural defects in elementary school children, New Orleans M. & S. J. 9l:601, 1939.

Cyriax, E.: Some remarks on the action of the sacro lumbalis   during standing,  J. Anat. 67:l78, 1932. 

Dickson, F. D.: Effect of posture on the health of the child,   J.A.M.A. 77:760, 1921.  

Dodds, G. A., and Cameron, H. C.: Studies in experimental rickets in rats, Am. J. Path. 19:169, 1943.

Fitshugh, M. L.: Let’s keep them straight, Connecticut State Department of Health, M.C.H. 79.  -: The physical therapist looks at babies, Phys. Therap. Rev. 14:284, 1948.  

Gluckmann, A.: The role of mechanical stresses in bone formation in vitro, J. Anat. 76:231, 1942.

Goldberg, H.: Pre-school posture, Kentucky M.J. 29:539,   1931.  

Goldthwait, J. E.: The opportunity of the orthopedist in preventive medicine through educational work on posture, Am. J. Orthop. Surg. l4:443, 1916. 

Hansson, K. G.: Study of posture in first and second decades, Internat. Clin. 4:130, 1930. 

Haynes, R. S.: Posture in children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 36:1093, 1928.  

Horstenegg, W. A. R.: Korperliche ausbildung der Jugendlichen und statische Deformitaten,  Wien. med. Mchnschr.   88:969, 1938.  

Kraus, H. and Eisenmenger, S.: Evaluation of posture based on structural and functional measurements, Physiotherapy Rev. 25:267, 1945.

Kuhns, J. G.: Developmental changes in vertebral articular facets, Radiology 25:498, 1935.   —: Funnel chest deformity, New England  J. Med. 204:1077, 1931.   ---: Normal posture in early childhood, Pub. Health Nursing 38:406, 1946.   -—-: Genu varum, a postural deformity, Arch. Pediat.   55:224,‘1936.   -: Physiological scoliosis, Arch. Pediat. 55:343, 1938.    

McCullock, H.: Postural defects and body types in children,   M. Clin. North America 9:99, 1925.

Meyers, E. E.: Management of postural deformities of the   lower extremities, Am. J. S. 44:232, 1939.

Mills, H.: Posture and eye strain in children, Boston. M. &   S. J. 168:l28, 1913.  

Nathan, L., and Kuhns, J. G.: Epiphysitis of the spine,   J. Bone & Joint Surg. 22:55, 1940.  

Patton, E. F.: Posture in childhood, Calilornia & Western   Med. 41:185, 1934. 

Phemister, D. B.: Bone growth and repair, Ann. Surg.   102:261, 1935.  

Sabot, F. B.: Effect of body mechanics on health and children, South. M. J. 15:171, 1922.  

Steindler, A.: Mechanics of Normal and Pathological Locomotion in Man, Springfield, Thomas, 1935.

Sterling, E. B.: The posture of the school children in relation to nutrition, physical defects, school grades and   physical training, Pub. Health Rep. 37:2043, 1920. 

Stilwell, F. H.: Effect of posture upon teeth and spine,   Dental Cosmos 69:154, 1921.  

Sweet, C.: Postural development of infants, California & Western Med. 25:181, 1926.  

Toefel, T.: Influence of posture on development of child,   South. M. J.  19:267, 1926. 

Whitman, A.: Postural deformities in children, New York   State J. Med. 24:871, 1924. 

Wiggins, R. H.: The management of posture in children,   Canad. M. A.  27:47, 1932.  -: Defects in children’s posture, Canad. M. A. J.   24:820, 1931.  

Wiles, P.: Postural deformities in adolescence, Practitioner  135:3l8, 1935.   -: Deformities of anteroposterior curves of the spine,   Lancet 1:911, 1939.  

Wilson,  C.: Etiology and treatment of faulty body mechanics in childhood, California State  M. J. 21:14.5, 1923.       


Chapter 5

Banks S W and Compere E. L.: Lesions of intervertebral   discs, Surg. Clin. North America 19:43, 1939.

Barr, J. S.: Relationship of intervertebral disc to back strain and peripheral pain, Surgery 4:1, 1938

Buckley, C. W.: Fibrositis, lumbago and sciatica, Practitioner 134:129, 1935

Butler, E. D.: Low back pain and its management by the general surgeon, California Med. 68:70, 1948

Dawson, G. R.: Low back pain and sciatica caused by faulty mechanics at lumbo-sacral area, J. South Carolina M.A. 37:242,1941

Dickson F. D.  Industrial injuries to back, Occup. Med. 3:53, 1947

Douthwaite, A. H.: Lumbago, Guy’s Hosp. Gaz. 50:311, 1936

Gaenslen, F.J., Low back pain; etiology and diagnosis,   Indust. Med. 4:105, 1935.  

Ghormley, R. K.: Diagnosis of low back disability, M. Clin.   North America 21:893, 1937.  

Goldthwait, J. E.: Anatomic explanation of many cases of weak and painful backs as well as many of the leg paralyses, Boston M. & S.  68:l28, 1913.

Hauser, E.: Backache due to functional decompensation,   Physiotherapy Rev. 17:46, 1937.  

Jones, M. L.: Backache in industrial injuries, Wisconsin   M. J. 44:1069, 1945.  

Jostes, F. A.: Low back pain, Mil. Surgeon 83:316, 1938. 

Kendall, H. O., and Kendall, F. P.: Study and treatment of   muscle imbalance in cases of low back and sciatic pain,   Physiotherapy Rev. 162175, 1936. 

Kreuscher, P. H.: Backache, etiology, diagnosis and non-surgical treatment, M. Clin. North America 18:1343, 1935.  

Krusen, F. H.: Relation of physical therapy to management of low back pain, Canad. M. A. J. 42:534, 1940.  

Kuhns, J.  G.: Hypertrophic arthritis of the spine, New England Med. 217:317, 1937. -: Low back pain, Rhode Island M. J. 19:131, 1936. 

Lindon, L.: Problems of backache and sciatica, M. J. Australia 2:345, 1946.  

Miller, O. L.: Apparent indications for lumbosacral fusion in low back disorders, South. Med. & Surg. J. 98:533, 1936.  

Murray, J.M.: Low back pain, Canad. M. A. J.  41:427, 1939.  

Myers, E. E.: Problem of the low back, Indust. Med. 10:5,   1941.  

Newton, K.: Preventing back strain in nursing, Am.J.  Nursing 43:921, 1943. 

Phalen, G. S.: Mechanical backache, Cleveland Clin. Quart.  15:113, 1948.  

Rankine, T. G.: Remedial exercise for low back pain, J. Roy. Army M. Corps 81:250, 1943.  

Steindler, A.: Interpretation of sciatic radiation and syndrome of low back pain, J. Bone & Joint Surg. 22:28, 1940.

Sweet, P. P: Sciatica, backache and intervertebral discs, Connecticut M. J. 9:701, 1942

Thompson, V. P: Role of faulty body mechanics in military lame back, Am. Acad. Orth. Surg. Lectures, pp.438-453

Walke. F. H.: Physical therapy in low back injuries, Arch. Phys. Therap. 17:290, 1936

Willard, DeF.: Inefficiency due to back strain and faulty posture in unseasoned troops, Am. J. Orthop. Surg. 16:429, 1918

Williams, P. C.: Lesions of the lumbosacral spine. Chronic traumatic (postural) destruction of lumbosacral intervertebral disc, J. Bone & Joint Surg. 19:690. 1937

Wilson, P. D.: Back and foot strain, Indust. Hyg. 4:106, 1922

Young, J. H.: Lumbago, M. J. Australia 2:485, 1946

Zeiter, W. J.: and Ward, G. J.: Poor posture and low back pain, Cleveland Clin. Quart. 9:91, 1942


Chapter 6

Alexander, H. L., and Kountz, W. B.: The mechanism of   non obstructive emphysema, Tr. A. Am. Physicians 47: 255, 1932.  

Allen, S. C., Taylor, C. K., and Hall, V. E.: Study of orthostatic insufficiency by tiltboard method, Am.  Physiol.   143:11, 1945. 

Baltzan, D. M.: Procedure in treatment of heart disease,   Canadian M. A. J.  53:150, 1945.

Barranger, T. B.: Exercise tolerance in heart disease,   ].A.M.A. 79:22O3, 1922. 

Black, E. C.: Physical education in heart cases, Am. Phys. Educ. Rev. 29:3l7, 1924.

Bock, A. V., Lawrence, J.  S., and Hurxthal, L. M.: Variations in blood flow with change in position,  Clin. Investigation 3:613, 1927.  

Bolton, C., and Barnard, W. G.: Portal Stagnation, J. Path. & Bact. 34:701, 1931.

Christie, D. C., and Beams, A. J. Estimation of normal vital capacity with especial reference to effect of posture, Arch. Int. Med. 30:34, 1922.  

Cooley, M. C.: Treatment of congestive failure, Am. Heart J.   33:740, 1947.  

Crampton, C. W.: The gravity-resisting ability of the circulation, Am. J. Med. Sc. 140:721, 1920.  

Day, G. H.: Diaphragmatic dyspnoea, J. Roy. Army M. Corps 81:290, 1943.  

Dupee, C., and Johnson, V.: Respiratory changes in pulmonary vascular capacity, Am. ]. Physiol. 139:95, 1943. 

East, T., and Brigden, W.: Postural hypotension, Brit. Heart J.  8:103, 1946.  

Editorial: Function of the diaphragm, ].A.M.A. 91:1894, 1928.  

Fries, E. C.: Cardiovascular response to graded exercise,   Arch. Phys. Therap. 25:540, 1944.  

Goldthwait, J. E.: Ptosis of the heart and diaphragm, Boston  M.& S. J. 189:581, 1923.  

Grollman, A.: Variations in posture, effect on output of heart, Am.  J. Physiol. 86:285, 1928.

Harrison, R. G.: Regenerative capacity of cardiac muscle, J. Anat. 81:365, 1947.  

Holt,  P., and Tashkind, W. J., Bernstein, P., Griesen, J. C.: Regulation of arterial blood pressure, Am. J.   Physiol. 146:410, 1946.  

Kerr, W. J. The treatment of angina pectoris by methods which appear to promote more adequate filling of the heart, Am. Heart J. 16:544, 1938.  

Kerr, W. J., and Logen, J. B.: The postural syndrome related to obesity leading to postural emphysema and cardiorespiratory failure, Ann. Int. Med. 10:569, 1936.  

Kuhn, P. H.: Cardiovascular patients in industry, Indust. Med. 17:461, 1948.  

Lee, R. 1.: Investigative opportunities in the physical examination of large groups of individuals, Jour. Indust. Hyg. 3:304, 1922

Livingstone, J.  S.: Variations in the volume of the chest with changes in posture, Lancet 1:754, 1928.

Main, R.J., and Baker, J. P.: Circulatory and respiratory disturbances of the erect posture, Virginia M. Month.   68:210, 1941. 

McCutchen, G. T.: Varicosities of the lower extremity, Am. J. Surg. 72:63, 1946.  

Moore,  J. W.: Hemodynamics in man, South. M. J.  107:12, 1945.  

Porter, W. B.: Cardiodiaphragmatic syndrome, Virginia M. Month. 70:179, 1943.  

Redervell, F. H.: What part does posture play in ischaemia and stasis of the pelvic organs?, Urol.& Cutan. Rev. 30:535, 1946.  

Robinson, S. C.: Hypertension, body build and obesity,  Am.  Med. Sc. 199:819, 1940.  

Sanders, A. O.: Postural hypotension, Am.  Med. Sc. 182:217, 1931.  

Slocum, H. C., and Hoeflich, E. A.: Circulatory and respiratory distress from extreme positions on operating table,   Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 84:1051, 1947.  

Soderman, W. A., and Englehart, H. T.: Causes of syncope with special reference to the heart, New Orleans M. and S. J. 97:309, 1945.  

Stoll, H. F.: Postural defects and cardiac symptoms, Am. Heart J. 5:648, 1930.  

Thies, F. V.: Peripheral vascular disease, recent advances in treatment, Indust. Med. 18:440, 1949.

Trace, I. M.: Heart and diaphragm, Ann. Int. Med. 5:759, 1932.  

Turner, A. H.: Adjustment of heart rate and blood pressure in prolonged standing, Am. J. Physiol. 81:197, 1927. 

Wagner, J. A., and Hatfield, C. A.: Diagnosis and treatment of common peripheral vascular diseases, M. Clin. North America 30:1324, 1946.  

Werks, L.: Influence of positive pressure breathing on circulation in men, Acta med. scandinav., supp. 193:1, 1947.

Williams, T. K., ]r.: Reversible heart disease, New Orleans   M.& S. J.  98:199, 1945.  

Wright J S.: The neurovascular syndrome produced by hyperabduction of the arms, Am. Heart                  J.  29:1, 1943

Vickers, A. A.: Radiographic investigation of motility of diaphragm, Brit.  J. Radiol. 18:229, 1945

Chapter 7

There are no references for this chapter


Chapter 8  

Abbott, W. O.: Postural treatment of visceroptosis, Pennsylvania M. J. 37:743, 1943. 

Adams, T. W.: Painful menstruation with special reference to posture as an etiological factor, West. J. Surg. 42:88,   1943.           

C. W.: Important dividing line between caudal herniation and prolapse of abdominal and pelvic viscera,   West. J. Surg. 54:279, 1946.  

Bates, W.: Relation of body mechanics to surgical diagnosis, Arch. Phys. Therap. 16:416, 1935. 

Brown, L. T.: X-ray study of the diaphragm, its correlation to body mechanics in children, J. Bone & Joint Surg.   17:133,1935.  -:1 Bodily mechanics and nutrition, Boston M. & S. J. 18:187, 1920.  

Bull, B. W., and Jones, M. F. Incidence of postural proteinuria, South African M. J., 1946.  

Case, E. H., and Stiles, J. A.: The effect of various surgical positions on vital capacity, Anesthesiology 7:29, 1946.  

Chambers, R., and Ziverbach, B. W.: Functional activity of blood capillar bed, Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 46:683, 1946.  

Coffee, R. C.: Gastro-enteroptosis, New York, Appleton, 1923.

Cormalt-Jones, D. W.: Low visceral tone, Brit. M.J.  1:10,   1932.

Day, G. H.: Diaphragmatic dyspnoea, J. Roy. Army M. Corps 81:290, 1943.  

Editorial: Exercises in diabetes, J.A.M.A. 83:197, 1924.  

Goldthwait, J. E.: Cause of gastroptosis and enteroptosis and their possible importance as a causative factor in rheumatoid diseases, Boston M.& S.J.  162:695, 1910.   -: 1 Real significance of visceroptosis, Pennsylvania M.J. 17:523, 1914.   -: Some considerations in the treatment of hernia, Mil. Surgeon 72:208, 1933.   -: The problem of the diabetic, Mil. Surgeon 72:2,   1933. -: Mechanics and function of the organs in the upper abdomen, Physiotherapy Rev. 15:1, 1935. 

Haman, J.  0.: Exercises in dysmennorrhoa, Am. ]our. Obst. & Gynec. 49:755, 1945.  

Hoffman, L. M.: Relation of body mechanics to abdominal pain and visceroptosis, M. Rec. 140:182, 1934. 

Howorth, M. B.: Dynamic posture, Hygiea 25:198, 1947.  

Keith, Sir Arthur: Adaptation of abdomen and viscera to the orthograde posture, Brit. M.J. 1:587, 1923.  

Kinsella, V. J. Abdominal pain and integration of patient, M. J. Australia 1:681, 1940.  

Lane, Sir Arbuthnot: Intestinal stasis, Surg., Gynec. & Obst.   42:196, 1926.  

Lee, A. R.: Symptom producing factors in right visceroptosis, M. J.  Australia 2:750, 1934.  

Meyers, E. H.: Body mechanics in relation to nutrition, California State J. M. 20:440, 1922.

McConnell,  J.K. Slack abdominal wall, Lancet 2:363, 1928.  

Miller, N. F.: Dysmenorrhoea problem, J.A.M.A. 95:1796, 1930.   -: Posture studies in gynecology, J.A.M.A. 89:1761,   1927.  

Moore, J. W.: Hemodynamics in man, South. Med. & Surg. 107:12, 1945.  

Norsworthy, O. L. The debutante slough as a factor in   surgery, Texas State J. Med. 17:154, 1921.

Polgar, F.: Action of gravity on visceral cavity, Acta radiol.   27:647,1946.  

Post, W. E., and Thomas, W. A.: Orthostatic albuniinuria,  J.A.M.A. 80:293, 1923.  

Reynolds, S. R. M.: Uterine accommodation of the products of conception, physiologic considerations, Am. J. Obst. &   Gynec. 53:901, 1947.  

Riddle, A. W., Mengert, W. F., and Sanders, R. W.: The   effect of body posture on uterine position, Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 54:391, 1947.

Russell, J.W.: Postural albuminuria, Lancet 2:683, 1925.  

Swaim, L. T.: Chronic gastrointestinal stasis, Clifton Med. Bull. 2:40, 1914.   -: Recurrent symptoms of appendicitis, Boston M. & S. J. 189:676, 1923.  

Swanson, C.: Relation of pelvic inclination, lumbar index and posture to obstetrics, Michigan M. A. J. 30:669, 1931.  

Talbot, F. B., and Brown, L. T.: Relation of bodily mechanics to cyclic vomiting, Am. ]our. Dis. Child. 20:168,   1920.  

Tenant, C. E.: Faulty posture causing abdominal pain, simulating symptoms associated with visceral pathology, Colorado Med. 20:191, 1923.  

Thorel, P.: Glenard’s disease, importance of some of its complications, Am. J. Surg. 13:597, 1947.

Trumef, R.: Exercises in therapy of gastro-intestinal ptosis,  Munch. Med. Wchnschr. 85:631, 1938.

Vietor, A. C.: Anatomic basis for the study of splanchnoptosis, N. E. J. M. 206:1137, 1932.  

White, J. R.: Visceroptosis in relation to posture, M. J. Australia, Supp. 5:133, 1927.


Chapter 9

Barr,  S.: Low back and sciatic pain, J. Bone & joint Surg. 33:633,1951.  

Boynton, W. H.: Posture as a condition of efficient brain activity, School & Society 4:86, 1916.

Briscoe, G.: Adequate electrical stimuli for posture and movement,  J. Physiol. 71:292, 1932.  

Brown, T. G.: On postural and nonpostural activities of the mid-brain, Proc. Roy. Soc. 873:145, 1913. 

Cannon, W. B.: A method of stimulating autonomic nerves in the unanesthetized cat with observations on the motor and sensory effects, Am. J. Physiol. 105:366, 1933.  

Carnett, J. B.: Acute and recurrent pseudo-appendicitis,  Am.  M. Sc. 174:833, 1927.  -: Intercostal neuralgia as a cause of abdominal pain, Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 42:625, 1926.  

Darrow, C.: Physiological and clinical autonomic balance, Physiol. Rev. 23:1, 1943.  

Denny-Brown, D.: On the nature of postural reflexes, Proc. Roy. Soc. 104:B:252, 1929. 

Fulton, J. F.: Physiology of the Nervous System, New York Oxford Med. Pub., 1943.  

Goldthwait, J. E.: A case of general progressive muscular atrophy with recovery, Boston M. &: S. J. 186:559, 1922.  

Gunther, L.: Radiating pains in hypertrophic arthritis, California and West. Med. 29:152, 1928.

Harvey, A. M.: Physiology of the neuromuscular junction clinical aspects, Federation Proc. 7:458, 1948.  

Hellebrandt, F. A.: Postural adjustment in convalescence and rehabilitation, Federation Proc. 3:243, 1944.  

Jones, E.: The influence of bodily positions on mental activities, Arch. Physiol. 6:60, 1907.  

Kuntz, A.: The Autonomic Nervous System, Philadelphia,  Lea, 1934.  

Langworthy, O. R.: Posture control by central nervous system, Physiol. Rev. 8:151, 1928.  

Larsen, E. M.: The fatigue of standing, Am. J. Physiol. 150:109, 1947.  

McGraw, M. B.: Neuromuscular mechanism of the infant, Am. Jour. Dis. Child. 60:1031, 1940. 

Magnus, R.: Some results of studies in the physiology of posture, Lancet 2:531, 1926.  

Miller, F. R.: Visceromotor reflexes, Am. J. Physiol. 71:84,   1924.  

Ottenger, F. M.: Symptoms of Visceral Disease, St. Louis, Mosby, 1930.  

Ryle, J. A.: Visceral pain and referred pain, Lancet 1:895, 1926.               

Sprague, J.  M., Schreiner, L. H., Lindsley, D. B., Magoun,   H. W.: Reticulospinal influence on stretch reflex, Neurophysiol. 11:501, 1948.  

Thomas, H. M.: Transient paralysis from postural hypotension, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 65:329, 1939.  

Todd, T. W: Posture and cervical rib, Ann. Surg. 75:105,  1922.  

White, J. C., and Smithwick, R.: The Autonomic Nervous System, New York, Macmillan, 1943.

Wright, S.: Discussion on the functions of the sympathetic nervous system, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 25:1588, 1932.   



Chapter 10

Bauer, W: Rheumatoid arthritis; the importance of a comprehensive approach in treatment, J.A.M.A. 138:397, 1948.  

Bayles, T. B.: Modern treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,  M. Clin. North America 32:1357, 1948.

Bick, E. M.: Peripheral vascular system in chronic arthritis, Am. Surg. 18:77, 1932.  

Buckley, C. W.: Spondylitis, Ann. Rheumat. Dis. 7: 17, 1948.  

Capener, N.: Physiologic rest, Brit. M.J.  2:761, 19416.  

Comroe, B. I.: Physical therapy in arthritis, Arch. Phys. Therap. 26:677, 1945.  

Desmarais, M. H. L.: Rehabilitation of chronic arthritis,   Brit. Phys. Med. 10:116, 1947. 

Douthwaite, A. H.: Problem of rheumatism, Practitioner  161:153, 1948.  

Eaton, E. R.: Problem of chronic arthritis, .Mil. Surgeon   102:117, 1948.  

Fletcher, A. A.: Chronic arthritis, Canad. M. A. J.  22:320,   1930.  

Fletcher, E.: Osteoarthritis and its treatment, Brit. J. Phys. Med. 11:136, 1948.

Goldthwait, J. E.: Arthritis, general considerations, Am. Med. 25:589, 1930.   -: Infectious arthritis, Boston M. & S. J.  150:363, 1904.   -: Osteoarthritis, Boston M. & S. J.  150:529, 1904.   -: Our present understanding of the rheumatoid diseases, Wisconsin M. J. 10:5, 1911.  

Hall, F. C.: Treatment of chronic arthritis, Am. Med.   35:367, 1929.   -: Common arthritis conditions, M. Clin. North America 29:1269, 1945.  

Hartung, E. F.: Relation of posture to arthritis, Arch. Phys. Therap. 18:626, 1937.  

Hench, P. S.: Ameliorating effects of pregnancy on chronic atrophic arthritis, fibrositis and intermittent hydra-arthrosis, Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clinic 13:16l, 1938.   

Hench, P. S., Kenall, E. C., Slocumb, C. H., and Polley, H. F.: Effect of hormone of adrenal cortex and of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone on rheumatoid arthritis, Ann. Rheumat. Dis. 8:97, 1949.

Irish, W. H., and Stump, J. P.: Villous arthritis of knee due to improper weight distribution, Arch. Phys. Therap. 20:391, 1939.

Jordan, E. P., et al.: Primer on arthritis, J.A.M.A. 119:1089,   1942  

Kuhns, J. G.: Body mechanics in the treatment of chronic arthritis, Physiotherapy Rev. 16:83, 1936._-: Review of the pathology in chronic arthritis, Am. Med. 25:593, 1930.  -: Orthopedic management of chronic arthritis, Am. Pract., Feb., 1951.  

Osgood, R. B.: Orthopedic aspects of chronic arthritis, J. Bone & Joint Surg. 8:26, 1926.   

Patek, R.: Static deformities as a factor in the production of so-called hypertrophic arthritis, J. Orthop. Surg. 3:324, 1921.  

Piersol, G. M., and Hollander, J. L.: Optimum rest-exercise balance in arthritis, Arch. Phys. Med. 28:500, 1947.     

Raff, A.: Menopausal arthritis, S. African M.J.  21:294,  1941.  

Selye, H.: General adaptation syndrome and diseases of adaptation,  J.Allergy 17:231, 1946.  

Short, C. L., and Bauer, W.: Rheumatoid arthritis course in patient receiving simple medical and orthopedic measures, New Eng. J.Med. 238:142, 1948.  

Smith, M.: Relationship of constitutional inadequacy to atrophic arthritis, Boston M. & S. J. 202:714, 1930. 

Steinbrocker, O.: Results in rheumatoid arthritis,   J.A.M.A. 131:189, 1946.  

Swaim, L. T. Rheumatoid arthritis, general treatment,  J. Indiana M. A. 38:487, 1945.   —: Orthopedic treatment of Strumpell-Marie arthritis, J. Bone & Joint Surg. 21:983, 1939.   -: Postural treatment of chronic arthritis,  Advanced Therap. 33:248, 1915.  

Swaim, L. T., and Kuhns, J. G.: Prevention of deformities in chronic arthritis, J.A.M.A. 94: 1123, 1930._: lbid. 93:1863, 1929; Ibid. 93:1123, 1929.  

Tegner, W. S.2 Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Lancet 1:469, 1948.  

Thorn, G. W, Prunty, F. T. G., and Forsham, P. H.:   Clinical studies on effects of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone, Tr. A. Am. Physicians 60:143, 1947.  

Wilcox, W.: Etiology of chronic rheumatism, Practitioner 127:509, 1931.  

Williams, H. A.: Pre-rheumatoid, Rheumatism 3:15, 1946.  

Willis, T. A.: Static strain in hypertrophic arthritis, J. Bone & Joint Surg. 6:316, 1924. -: Chronic arthritis of the shoulder, New England  J. Med. 219:516, 1938.   


Chapter 11

Abraham, A.: Exercise and hypertrophy, Lancet 2:565, 1946.

Ansfield, D.J.  Posture defects in children, Wisconsin M. J. 43:703, 1944.

Arnold, E. H.: Bad posture or deformity, Am. Phys. Educ. Rev. 31:1058, 1926.

Blum, E.: Round shoulders, postural defect therapy by medical gymnastics, Dis. Med. 18:149, 1946.

Bowen, C.: Posture training for adolescents, Phys. Therapy Rev. 28:60, 1948.

Brock, D. E.: Some practical ideas about posture training, Am. Phys. Educ. Rev. 28:330, 1923.

Burt, H. A.: Effects of faulty posture, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 43:187, 1950.

Capener, N.: Physiologic Rest, Brit. M. J. 2:761, 1946. 

Carnett,  J. B., and Bates, W.: Phases of body mechanics, J. Health and Phys. Educ. 4:28, 1933.

Cathcart, E. P.: Physiologic approach to fitness, Brit. M. J. 2:273, 1938.

Clark, W. A.: Defects of posture correctable in school, physical education classes, California and West. Med.  28:636, 1928.

Cyriax, J. Treatment by movement, Brit. M. J. 2:303, 1944.

Davis, J. E.: Fundamental concepts of physical activity in rehabilitation, Ment. Hyg. 31:630, 1947.

Dutton, C.: Posture in school health program, Pub. Health Nursing 39:208, 1947.

Estes, W. L.: Causes and occurrences of scoliosis in college men, J.A.M.A. 75:411, 1920.

Ewerhardt, F. H.: Physical exercise, Med. Physics, pp. 1040-1043, 1943.

Fitzhugh, M.: Let’s keep them straight, Conn. State Dept. of Health M. C. H. 79, 1948.

Fitzhugh, M. L.: The physical therapist looks at babies, Physical Therapy Rev. 28:4, 1948.

Forrester-Brown, M.: Posture improvement, Lancet 2:115, 1930.

Fries, E. C.: Cardiovascular response to graded exercise, Arch. Phys. Therap. 25:540, 1944.

Garner, J. R.: Good posture and good health, Life & Health 64:8, 1949.

Gengenbach, F. P.: Posture work in children, Texas State J. Med. 18:596, 1923.

Godov, V. C.: Evaluation of fitness, Medicina 78:129, 1950. 

Hall, E. R.: Exercise and posture in relation to disease, Virginia M. Month. 53:729, 1926.

Hansson, K. G.: Comparative study in the first and second decade of life, Internal Clin. 4:136, 1930.  Hens, E. A., Jr., Krale, W. F.: Circulation: effect of heat and cold, exercise and posture, Med. Physics, pp. 194-206, 1943.

Hill, H. B.: Common mistakes in teaching physical training, Brit. M. J. 2:608, 1925.

Hugh-Jones, P.: The effect of seat position in the efficiency of bicycle pedaling,  Physiol. 106:186, 1947.  Huher, E. G.: Physical disabilities in drafted men, Mil. Surgeon 61:734, 1927.

Jokl, E.: Medical research in physical education, South African M. J. 19:196, 1945.

Klein, A., and Thomas, L.: Posture clinics, Washington, D. C., U. S. Dept. of Labor, Children’s Bureau Pub. 164, 1926.

Kraus, W. M.: Study in comparative physiology of posture, Bull. New York Acad. Med. 3:532, 1927.

Langworthy, O. R.: Postural control of central nervous system, Physiol. Rev. 8:151, 1928.

Lanskenau, N. I.: Rehabilitation by modern methods, Brit. J. Phys. Med. 6:12, 1943.

Lee, R. I., and Brown, L. T.: A new chart for standardization of body mechanics, J. Bone & ]oint Surg. 5:753, 1923. 

Lewis, S.: Influence of body flexibility on health, New York M. J. 107:12, 1918.

Little, E. M.: Treatment of postural defects in children and adolescents, Lancet 1:197, 1925.

McCurdy, J. H.: Postural skills essential to health, Am.Phys. Educ. Rev. 31:894, 1926.

McDonnel, J. Sleep posture, Brit. J. Phys. Med. 9:46, 1946.

Mott, G. E.: Posture, U. S. Nav. M. Bull. 25:1, 1927. 

Narosimha Agyar, N. S.: Body mechanics, Antiseptic 44:293, 1947.

Neel, D. I.: Overcoming postural handicaps, Phys. Rev.11:208, 1931.

Nicholson, J. T., and Laplace, L. B.: Therapeutic value of postural correction, Arch. Phys. Therap. 19:229, 1938. 

Phalen, G. S.: The diagnosis and treatment of mechanical backache, J.A.M.A. 141:445, 1950.

Phelps, W. M., and Kiphuth, R. J. Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Defects, Springfield, Thomas, 1932. 

Pond, A.: Functional approach to diagnosis and treatment of static disorders, Rocky Mountain M. ]. 43:459, 1946. 

Robinson, O.: Physical therapist and postural defects, J.A.M.A. 93:578, 1929.

Sherman, F. A.: Habits of posture as related to health and efficiency, Nat. Health 5:708, 1923.

Sjogren, B.: Arterial orthostatic anemia, Acta. med.  scandinav. 133:45, 1949.

Steinbrocker, O., et al.: Musculoskeletal inadequacy and failure, Geriatrics 5:121, 1950.

Sweet, C. D.: Improvement in body mechanics in adolescent children, Am. Dis. Child 74:503, 1947.

Todd, M. E.: Principles of posture, Boston M. & S. J. 182:645, 1920.

Tomb, J. W.: Fainting, shock and muscular activity, M. J. Australia 2:274, 1944.

Warren, W. W.: Care of chronic sick, Lancet 1:841, 1946.

Whitelock, R. H. A.: Posture in the treatment of disease, Lancet 2:254, 1924.

Wiles, P.: Postural deformities of the antero-posterior curves of the spine, Lancet 1:911, 1937.

Williams, H. A.: Pre-rheumatoid, Rheumatism 3:15, 1946. 

Wright, J.: Protective body mechanics in convalescence, Am. Nursing 45:699, 1945.


Chapter 12

Bailey, E. T., and Harrens, B. B.: Remedial correction of valgus foot strain by foot pronation exercises, Lancet 2:490, 1946.

Baker, D. M.: Remedial exercises in postural defects of feet, Brit.  Phys. Med. 11:87, 1948.

Bellman, E. H.: Human foot, new functional exercise, Arch. Phys. Therap. 25:13, 1944.

Blumenthal, L.: Proposed method for carrying out physiologic training for flat feet, Acta orthop. scandinav. 8:363, 1937.

Brett, A. L.: Crippling sequelae of static defects of the feet, Physiotherapy 21:306, 1941.

Bruce, J., and Walmsley, R.: Arches of the foot, Lancet 2:656, 1938.

Compere, E. L.: Flat feet in children, M. Clin. North America 30:147, 1946.

Creer, W. S.: Foot faults related to form and function, Brit. J. Indust. Med. 1:54, 1944.

Cuttle, T. D.: Method of evaluating muscle balance in so-called flat feet in the Navy, U. S. Nav. M. Bull. 41:216, 1943.

Dickson, F. D., and Diveley, R. L.: Functional Disorders of the Foot, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1949.

Gilking, G.: Run down at heels, Am. J. Nursing 49:796, 1949.

Good, M. G.: Painful feet, Practitioner 163:229, 1949. 

Gosman, J. A.: Flat foot, common disorder first manifesting itself in childhood, Ohio State M. J. 43:1142, 1947.

Graham,  Complications of weak feet, Am. J. Surg. 42:299, 1938.

_-: Treatment of weak feet, Illinois M. J. 75:425, 1939. 

Harris, H. A.: Assessment of foot function, Lancet 1:32, 1942.

Hauser, E. D. W.: Diseases of the Foot, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1950.

-: Common foot disorders, Arch. Phys. Therap. 25:93, 1944.

Jones, R. L.: Functional significance of declination of axis of subtalar joint, Anat. Rec. 93:151, 1945.  Kark, W.: Foot strain in the service, Roy. Army M. Corps 83:166, 1944.

Kite, J. H.: Morton’s toe syndrome, J.M.A. Georgia 36:309, 1947.

Lake, N. C.: Foot as a factor in producing fatigue in industry and in the services, M. Press 208:344, 1942.  Lewin, P.: The Foot and Ankle, Philadelphia, Lea, 1941.

-: Painful conditions of foot and ankle, Postgrad. Med. 6:292, 1949.

-: Nurses’ feet deserve good care; and how about your posture? Am. J.Nursing 38:626, 1938.

Liebolt, F. L.: Foot problems in children, Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 90:461, 1950.

Lowman, C. L.: Feet and body mechanics, J. Health and Phys. Ed. 11:137, 1940.

Manter, J. T.: Distribution of compression factors in joints of human foot, Anat. Rec. 96:313, 1946.

McGee, L. C.: Treatment of flat foot in children, Hygeia 22:660, 1944.

Miller, T. M.: Treatment of minor foot disabilities, Edinburgh M. J. 45:540, 1938.

Morton, D.  Biomechanics of the Human Foot, Lecture, Am. Acad. Orth. Surg., Ann Arbor, Brooks Bros., 1944. 

Naret, J. K., and Cepolla, A. F.: New method of leg exercises, Arch. Surg. 53:345, 1946.

Osgood, R. B.: Important etiologic factor in so-called foot strain, New England J. Med. 226:552, 1942.

Price,.E. E.:  Juvenile posture of legs and knees, M. J. Australia 2:589, 1949.

Robinev, M., Johnson, M, and Anderson, M.: Feet of normal children, J. Pediat. 23:141, 1943.

Robnett, J. H.: Weak feet and postural defects, Northwest Med. 26:592, 1927.

Truslow, W.: Relation of foot strain to other body strains, M. Times 74:275, 1946.

Van Arkel, C. D.: Foot disability in relation to posture, Geneesk. gids. 24:359, 1946.


Chapter 13

Beard, J. H.: The opportunity of preventive medicine in institutions of higher learning, J.A.M.A. 83:251, 1924. 

Dutton, C.: Posture in school health program, Pub. Health Nursing 39:208, 1947.

Fishbein, M.: Essential factors for health and fitness, Occup. Med. 2:566, 1946.

Foster, J. B.: Discussion of body mechanics, Physiotherapy Rev. 14:27, 1934.

Garner, J. R.: Posture and women, Internat. J. Med. & Surg. 45:195, 1932.

Gebhard, B.: Education in industrial health, Occup. Med. 3:364, 1947.

Goldthwait, J. E.: Importance of correct furniture to assist the best body function,  Bone & Joint Surg. 5:179, 1923. 

Hanman, B.: Who are physically handicapped, Indust. Med.16:298, 1947.

Hemeon, W. L. C.: Engineering in industrial health, Occup. Med. 4:201, 1947.

Howitt, F. D.: Rehabilitation center, Brit. M. J. 2:52, 1942. 

Hunter, D.: Devices for protection of worker against injury and disease, Brit. M. J. 1:449, 1950.

Jacobs, W. P.: Physical fitness, J.A.M.A. 125:831, 1944.

Jones, J. A.: Building of posture, Hygeia 12:236, 1934.

Jones, M. L.: Backache in industry, Wisconsin M. J. 44: 1069, 1945.

Keene, C. H.: Student health program, Am. Jour. Pub. Health 16:992, 1926.

Kuhns, J. G.: Physical therapy in common orthopedic conditions, Clinics 4:1463, 1946.

Leak, W. N.: Body mechanics in industry, Brit. J. Phys. Med. 6:176, 1943.

Lee, F. S.: The Human Machine and Industrial Efficiency, New York, Longmans, 1918.

Machanik, G.: Worker and his environment, South African M. J. 24:163, 1950.

McGraw, M. B.: Neuromuscular development of human infant as exemplified in achievement of erect locomotion, J. Pediat. 17:747, 1940.

MacNider, W. deB.: Aging of tissues, necessity for research, Science 104:405, 1946.

Milliken, R. A.: Plan for reeducation of defects in men of military age, Mil. Surgeon 63:182, 1928.

Morris, G. T. L. F., and King, J. E. A.: Man power deployment, Brit. J. Phys. Med. 10:70, 1947.

Page, R. C.: Significance of non-occupational disability, Arch. Indust. Hyg. 1:1, 1950.

Poole, F. E.: Physical examinations, objectives and methods, J.A.M.A. 133:91, 1947.

Rathe, H. W.: Health guidance in maturity, Jour. Iowa M. Soc. 37:270, 1947.

Richardson, F. H., and Hearn, W.J. The Preschool Child and His Posture, New York, Putnam, 1930.

Roche, J. Medical care and public health function, Am. J. Pub. Health 27:1221, 1937. 

Russell, W. T., White, G. P. B., and Pyle, J.A.:  Studies in occupational morbidity, Brit. J. Indust. Med. 4:56, 1947. 

Simonson, E.: Physical fitness and work capacity of men, Geriatrics 2:110, 1947.

Stafford, G. I.: Preventive and Corrective Physical Education, New York, Barnes, 1928.

Stewart, S. F.: Pre-employment examination of back,  J.Bone  & Joint Surg. 29:215,1947.

Walworth, H. T.: Worker health education, Indust. Med.  13:578, 1944.

Warren, W. W.: Care of chronic sick, Lancet 1:841, 1946

Welch, C. R.: Saving your figure in relation to pregnancy, Hygeia 18:209, 1940.

Wells R. L.: Present day concept of physical medicine, Virginia M. Month. 77:4, 1950

Wilde, H.: Posture and health examination, Hosp. Social Service. 14:254, 1926.

Yabuda. J.: Organic equilibrium, M. Press 214:124, 1945


Chapter 14

Affleck, J. W; Geriatric rehabilitation, Occup. Therapy 27: 1, 1948

Amulree, and Studley, E. L.: Care of aged, Brit. M. J. 1:617, 1945.

Bortz, E. L.: Management of elderly patient, Postgrad. Med. 7:186, 1950.

Boss, E. P.: Treatment of the Patient Past Fifty, Chicago, Yr. Bk. Pub., 1941.

Carlson, A. J.: Older worker, Scient. Month. 57:5, 1943.

Cowdry, E. V.: Factors in aging, Scient. Month. 56:370, 1943. 

Critchley, M.: Senile disorders of gait, Geriatrics 3:364, 1948.

Crosland, J. H.: Old age rehabilitation, M. Press. 218:42l, 1947.

Culley, A. B.: Care of aged and infirm and chronic sick, Pub. Health 60:102, 1947.

deGruchy, C.: Counselling the aged, Geriatrics 2:183, 1947. 

Dawson, P. W., and Hellebrandt, F. A.: Influence of aging in man upon his cardiovascular responses to exercise, Am. J. Physiol. 143:420, 1945.

Howell, T. H.: Blood pressure in old age, Brit. Heart J. 4:28, 1943.

Hyman, H.: Aged get well if given good convalescent care, Mod. Hosp. 66:87, 1946.

King, W. F.: Health guidance in advancing years, J. lndiana M. A. 39:589, 1946.

Kountz, W. B.: Degenerative disease, M. Times 75:93, 1947. 

Krusen, F. H., and Leden, W.  M.: Application of physical medicine in geriatrics, Geriatrics 1:409, 1946.

Lee, R. I.: Health and fitness at fifty, Proc. Stall Meet., Mayo Clinic 17:378, 1942.

Miller, L. A.: What is old age, Geriatrics 1:305, 1946. 

Moore, R. A.: Medical approach to problems of aging, J. Gerontol. 4:90, 1949.

Mueller-Dedam, A., and Rabson, S. M.: Internal Medicine in Old Age, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1942. 

Rabinev, A. M., and Hand, M.: Activity as therapeutic agent in Parkinsonian syndrome, Tr. Am. Neurol. A.  67:234,1941.

Rathburn, H. K.: Aspects of management of elderly patient, South M. J. 41:153, 1948.

Schock, N. W; Older persons and their potentialities for gainful employment, J. Gerontol. 2:93, 1947.

Sheldon, J. H.: Aspects of old age, Lancet 1:621, 1948. 

Simms, H. S.: Problem of aging and of vascular diseases, Science 95:183, 1942.

Steiglitz, E. J.  Geriatric Medicine, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1943.

Stoddard, A.: Physical medicine in care of aged and chronic sick, Brit. Phys. Med. 11:10, 1948.

Thewles, M. W.: The Care of the Aged, St. Louis, Mosby, 1941.

Thomson, A. P. T.: Problems of aging and chronic sickness, Brit. M. J. 2:243, 1949.